Coal trade refers to the economic benefits obtained by natural or legal persons through the sale or purchase of coal according to the purchase and sale agreement and contract. Coal trading enterprises belong to power chemical enterprises as well as coal source unit suppliers and have a very important coordinating role, but at this stage most power chemical enterprises gradually start to transform in the actual production and operation process.
In addition, the national requirements for the environment and air are also more strict, and the business risks of coal trading enterprises have largely increased, and they are easily suppressed and restricted by various aspects in the actual operation process, which has brought very serious impact on their operation and development afterwards.
Background of establishing risk prevention and control system
Coal trading enterprises are different from general trading enterprises, firstly, in terms of payment recovery, the recovery cycle is long, and it is difficult to achieve rapid return of funds, and there is a risk of breaking the capital chain; secondly, in terms of transportation, coal trading often needs to be carried out by waterway, railroad, highway and other forms, and once problems occur, it will cause tons of losses.
Finally, the quality of coal is largely affected by factors such as environment, climate and storage, and the two sides of the transaction often disagree on the price, which in turn increases the business risks of coal trading enterprises.
Therefore, this series of problems, coal trading enterprises in the actual operation process, want to enhance economic efficiency, it is necessary to do a good job of risk prevention, innovation of the existing risk prevention and control system, combined with the actual situation of the enterprise, to ensure the integrity and applicability of the risk prevention and control system to enhance the risk prevention and control ability of coal trading enterprises.
The principles of risk prevention and control system construction
First, the principle of prior prevention, prior prevention is to improve the basis of risk prevention in coal trading enterprises, prior prevention belongs to the enterprise’s own prevention, which can achieve the prevention of risk at the root, which requires the management of coal trading enterprises need to enhance their own risk prevention awareness.
Second, the principle of prevention, coal trading enterprises belong to the dynamic management, risk often exists dynamic characteristics, in the risk prevention management, also need to consider from a dynamic perspective, can do a good job in the actual work of the control of risk.
Third, the principle of remedy after the fact, when the risk occurs, the need to take the initiative to remedy, with the work of rights and judicial remedies to achieve the resolution of the risk or the impact of risk control to a minimum extent. When the legitimate rights and interests of the enterprise are infringed or there are legal disputes, a series of measures such as negotiation, arbitration and regulation can play an effective role in safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the enterprise, and can achieve the maximum extent of remedy or recovery of the enterprise’s losses.
Construction of risk prevention and control system
1. System system
In the construction of the system system, the following seven aspects can be carried out.
First, improve the internal control post authorization system, the relevant posts related to internal control must be clearly and detailed provisions on the object, scope, conditions and amount of authorization, no one or organization can exceed the authority to interfere with risky decisions.
Second, improve the internal control responsibility system, for each department and individual positions, responsibilities and the corresponding reward and punishment system, welfare benefits, in clear accordance with the principle of unity of rights, obligations and responsibilities to carry out.
Third, improve the internal control assessment and evaluation system, implement the performance assessment and evaluation system, establish a corresponding link between responsibility management, assessment and evaluation and welfare benefits, realize the effective unification of operation risk and performance assessment, and improve the operational standard and safety awareness of employees in the production and operation process.
Fourth, improve the internal audit system, improve the internal audit system according to the relevant ISO system standards, regularly check the actual operation and the operation effect, find the problems and risks in the operation process, formulate corresponding improvement and perfection measures, so that the effectiveness and applicability of the enterprise internal audit system can be fully guaranteed.
Fifth, to build a complete system of corporate legal advisors, the new legal risk responsibility system needs to be established with the participation of corporate leaders, legal advisors and corporate employees, to effectively implement the responsibilities of legal advisors, to fully play the role of legal advisors, so that the enterprise’s risk prevention and control capabilities are significantly improved.
Sixth, improve the system of checks and balances for important positions, do a good job of dividing the responsibilities of the enterprise, for business execution, management and supervision rights must be clearly? ^ divided, to avoid confusion between these three rights and other issues.
Seventh, improve the risk early warning system, for the enterprise in the process of business management of some major risks, must establish a corresponding risk early warning system, do a good job of monitoring the major risks, to ensure that the early warning information engraved timely release, and at the same time do a good job of emergency planning work, when the risk, can be in the first time in a timely and effective solution, the impact of the risk and bring the loss control in the smallest To enhance the ability of enterprise risk prevention and control.
2. Risk control system
In the construction of the risk control system, first of all, in the budget management, the business budget and capital budget should be included, through the business budget, the profit and risk of a single transaction can be simply assessed, risk control from the beginning of the business link, to provide an important reference for subsequent business transactions, capital budget refers to the budget statement of each department at the end of the month to be The financial budget means that the budget statements of each department are reported at the end of the month, and the finance department unifies them and evaluates the status of customers’ receipts and payments to ensure the reasonableness of the use of funds.
Second, do a good job in contract management, contract management can largely improve the effect of risk prevention and control, through the joint management of contracts by multiple departments, for the contract signing process involved in the authority and other issues to make a clear distinction, but also need to strengthen the assessment of the contract, the implementation of the responsibility system, the contract signed in the risk to a minimum.
Again, because of the special characteristics of coal trading enterprises in the transaction, enterprises must do a good job of managing the products, conducting detailed investigation and understanding of the inventory situation in each port and station, and doing a good job of logistics management.
In addition, it is also possible to have a detailed understanding of the customer’s trading situation through capital management. Finally, establish the customer credit review file, evaluate the customer’s creditworthiness, registered capital and other situations, and select the best customer to reduce the risk.
The construction of coal trading enterprise business risk prevention and control system can, on the one hand, improve the system; on the other hand, it can build a risk control system, and also build, for example, a culture support system and other systems. With the help of the culture support system, the organic combination of risk prevention and control and business development, the organic combination of performance assessment and full prevention, the combination of the establishment of the system and the implementation of the system can be realized to a certain extent.
In conclusion, coal trading enterprises belong to a special industry, in the prevention and control of risk, it is necessary to consider from a number of aspects, learn from experience and lessons in a timely manner, draw on relevant experience to achieve the innovation of enterprise risk prevention and control system, and improve the quality and effectiveness of enterprise risk control.